Environmental Science and Policy Courses

ESP 5040 Environmental Consulting - 3 graduate credits
This course is designed to train students on scientific degree tracks in becoming valuable employees in the environmental consulting industry by introducing students to the technical skills, project planning, and business management skills in demand by environmental consulting firms. The course focuses on the technical aspects in areas such as brownfield redevelopment, natural resources and environmental permitting, environmental compliance, sustainable development planning, etc. Course elements stress the use of industry standard procedures and state regulations, data and information management, report preparation, development of findings and opinions, and verbal presentations.

ESP 5050 Earth Surface Dynamics - 3 graduate credits
The Earth's near-surface environment, its so-called critical zone, supports almost all known life, holds most of the geologic record, and is the region where all of earth's dynamic symstems intersect. Changes in climate, land use, water resources and ecosystems alter the form and function of its critical zone, creating landforms such as river deltas, lakes, beaches, gullies, bogs, dune fields, salt flats and dried lake beds. This course examines recent trends and changes in Earth's most dynamic system, its critical zone, with emphasis on how these changes affect the very shape of our environment, including both terrestrial and sub-surface features. Although this course incorporates many aspects of glacial and periglacial geology, it goes beyond those remnants of past climate regimes to look at future earth scenarios. Topics range across many disciplines but all are, in essense, geomorphic responses to a dynamic earth. Potential topics: the impacts of changing sea level on river sediment and dissolved loads; ecological and water quality consequences of infilled dams/lakes, soil erosion and land conversion; climate-induced changes in floodplains, permafrost and Artctic shorelines; heightened storm surge from changes in terrestrial sediment budgets and marine currents; consequences of newly deglaciated land on Greenland, Antarctica and high mountain regions.

ESP 5060 Ecological Economics - 3 graduate credits
Ecological Economics (EE) is not a traditional discipline. Often referred to as a "transdiscipline" because it crosses the boundaries of several subjects, many say that ecological economics is the science of sustainability. In this introductory, graduate level course we will explore EE as a young and evolving field of inquiry. Standard and non-standard economic concepts will be explained along with ecological understanding to describe the challenges that arise in coupled natural-human systems. We will use problem and solution based inquiry to test out some of the methods advocated by ecological economists. This will include participatory research on ecosystem services in local communities. Specific topics to be covered may include: Abiotic and biotic resources; supply and demand; market failures; economic growth and human well-being; policy instruments; efficient allocation of resources; pricing and valuation of non-market goods; ecological economics case studies around biodiversity.

ESP 5070 Decision Making in Natural Resource Management - 3 graduate credits
Managing natural resources for multiple objectives, in a sustainable manner, is a challenge that both practitioners and researchers face in today's highly complex socio-political environment. Decision analysis skills are highly valued in the field of environmental science. This course will present current theories and applications related to decision making for natural resource management. Students will have the chance to work through local and regional decision making scenarios and compare different tools and theories on the ground.

ESP 5080 Soils and Environmental Change - 3 graduate credits
The purpose of this course is to introduce soil science to environmental science, geology, geography and biology majors. The course's multidisciplinary topics inform students about the relevance of soil studies across a broad spectrum of modern issues. Students will learn the geologic, geographic and climatologic aspects of soil formation, the structural components of soil that impact diverse aspects of soil fertility, drought, and tendency to landslide or erode, the dynamical aspects of soil hydrology and geochemistry, and the biological aspects of soil nutrient availability, nitrification, carbon cycling and biodiversity. A detailed list of topics, together with a tentative schedule, is included at the end of this document. This class is integrated with a laboratory that allows exploration of soil science topics through field and laboratory exercises.

ESP 5090 Environmental Chemistry - 3 graduate credits
This course covers the chemistry of Earth's environment, including the natural chemical processes as well as anthropogenic contributions. The environment in this context is divided into the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, and the anthrosphere. Particular emphasis is given to human influences in each of these "spheres," including the causes, effects, detection, prevention, and mitigation of pollution. Environmental pollution is a global problem, with many technological and cultural causes, and as such requires an understanding of numerous disciplines in order to solve. This course thus involves the integration of concepts from chemistry, biology, geology, ecology, atmospheric sciences, hydrology, toxicology, political science, and others. Major topics to be covered include stratospheric ozone depletion, global climate change and energy, acid rain, waste disposal, organic and inorganic pollutants, and environmental regulation in the United States. The lab component will focus primarily on detection of pollutants in air and water and will include a class research project.

ESP 5210 Forest Ecosystems - 3 graduate credits
The course will be structured around the advanced methods that have enhanced our understating of forest ecosystems. The course will explore concepts and techniques to address the changes in climatic cycles, the implications of wide-scale pollution, fire and other ecological disturbances that have an effect on forests ecosystems. Topics to be covered include forest water and biogeochemical cycles, forest ecology, forest diversity and global forest ecology. A field trip to the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest or another location in the White Mountain National Forest is included. Prerequisite: demonstration of competency in biogeochemistry, chemistry, ecology and quantitative analysis; or permission of instructor.

ESP 5300 Field Methods-Water Resources - 1 graduate credits
This course will focus on hydrologic and climatic field measurements and computations useful in watershed management and hydrology. It will involve the collection, compilation, and interpretation of data and assessing error, and learning about fundamental hydrologic properties. Course complements Watershed Hydrology.

ESP 5310 Snow Hydrology - 2 graduate credits
This course will look at the role of snow in the hydrologic cycle with emphasize on measurements, atmospheric formation, snow distribution and metamorphosis, snowmelt & accumulation, runoff prediction, snow chemistry, and forest and land-use interaction effects. This is a field and lecture based course taught over an intensive period in the winter. PREREQ: a physical geography, hydrology, or equivalent course or permission of the instructor.

ESP 5320 Watershed Hydrology - 3 graduate credits
This course will provide a qualitative and quantitative understanding of concepts and physical principles governing the occurrence, distribution, and circulation of water near the Earth's surface. Emphasis will be on the physical understanding and parameterization of hydrologic processes such as how rainfall and snowmelt become streamflow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater. This course is expected to serve as prerequisite to Watershed Management and Snow Hydrology, and co- or pre-requisite to Field Methods in Water Resources.

ESP 5330 Watershed Management/Planning - 3 graduate credits
Managing human impacts on watersheds and water resources and understanding the interrelationships among land-use, soil, and water will be addressed. Watershed management will focus on controlling the amount and timing of water yield, stormflow, water quality, and sedimentation with socio-economic considerations. Human uses of and impacts on water are examined with an emphasis on principles of water resource and watershed planning. Prerequisite: A prior hydrology course or permission from the instructor.

ESP 5390 Travel Study in Environmental Science and Policy - 2-3 graduate credits
Periodically, travel study courses will be offered that explore environmental science and policy topics and methods in different environments. These courses are designed to enhance students' skills and understanding with an emphasis on the transferability of these skills to other regions.

ESP 5420 Applied Hydrogeology - 3 graduate credits
This course provides comprehensive coverage of groundwater hydrology and the role of water in geologic processes from theory (i.e., principles governing the flow of groundwater) to practice with application to issues of groundwater supply, contamination, and resource management. Practical experience is gained through the use of real data sets and by the investigation of real-world problems.

ESP 5500 Special Topics in Environmental Science and Policy - 1-4 graduate credits
An in-depth study of a particular topic, contemporary issue or concern. The course will be taught by a specialist within the field being studied or, as an alternative methodology, a faculty member will coordinate a series of guest speakers who will meaningfully address the topic. Since topics vary, the course may be repeated with permission of the instructor.

ESP 5510 Analysis of Limnological Systems - 3 graduate credits
This course will examine the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. Topics to be covered will include the geology, chemistry, physics and biology of such systems. Special emphasis will be given to biogeochemical cycles, energy flow and productivity, and relationships of freshwater systems to human existence. Lab work will include studies of both lotic and lentic systems.

ESP 5530 Science-Based Research Design and Data Visualization - 3 graduate credits
This course will focus on the science-based research process from idea generation, to project design, to communication of results. The first part of the course will focus on the science-based process of constructing a compelling research question and designing a research program to address the question. The middle part of the course will address data visualization as a powerful means of communicating research results. The final part of the course will teach students how to best communicate science-based research or technical ideas through a variety of media types (presentations, websites, posters, etc.). Prerequisite: Demonstrated competency in sciences and quantitative analysis; or permission of instructor.

ESP 5540 Master's Thesis Outreach - 1 graduate credits
The Center for the Environment at Plymouth State University includes outreach in its mission. The Center works on applied environmental problems and the engagement of local communities and organizations in its work and through the work of the graduate students in Environmental Science and Policy. In order to prepare students to be better communicators of science, this course will introduce outreach and science communication concepts and help students in developing outreach skills. This course is designed to be taken along with ESP 5900 Master's Thesis Research, and students will be required to complete an outreach project or activity related to their thesis research. Creative methods and activities will be encouraged.

ESP 5560 Independent Environmental Research Outreach - 1 graduate credits
The Center for the Environment at Plymouth State University includes outreach in its mission. The Center works on applied environmental problems and the engagement of local communities and organizations in its work and through the work of the graduate students in Environmental Science and Policy. In order to prepare students to be better communicators of science, this course will introduce outreach and science communication concepts and help students in developing outreach skills. This course is designed to be taken along with ESP 5920 Independent Environmental Research, and students will be required to complete an outreach project or activity related to their independent environmental research project. Creative methods and activities will be encouraged.

ESP 5580 Climate Change - 3 graduate credits
This combined lecture and discussion course examines Earth's climate system and the feedbacks that affect it over annual to millennial (thousands of years) timescales. It is a highly interdisciplinary course that integrates information on climate from atmospheric, oceanographic and geologic sciences, and broadens overall comprehension of natural and human-invoked changes in earth's critical zone systems. Students from meteorology, environmental science and policy, and ecology should find this course highly informative and useful. Topics include past and present records of climate change, the various fields of study that contribute to climate knowledge, the effects of scale and frequency on the quality and reliability of climate records, and the state-of-the-art in climate assessment and prediction. Lecture sessions will provide fundamental information, especially with regard to the scientific basis for our current understanding of climate, and will introduce "hot" topics for discussion. Discussion sessions will focus on the most-recent status of these "hot" topics using recently published scientific papers and also online professional-level discussion forums. The role of science in politics and society will be an integral part of many of these discussions, including the obstacles created by declining public proficiencies in science and math and varying perceptions of risk.

ESP 5610 Environment and Society - 3 graduate credits
This course will introduce students to the study of environmental sociology and develop critical thinking skills facilitated by the application of sociological perspectives. Environmental issues and problems are often viewed as technical ones, to be resolved by the application of scientific and technical means alone. This common perception will be critically examined in this class. Environmental problems are problems for society that challenge and threaten our current system of organization, and are also problems of society. This class will examine material, ideal, and practical elements of environmental issues. Current environmental problems and policy issues will be debated, and their connections with society and culture will be the focus of the course. The meanings of nature and wilderness will be discussed. Other topics include: environmental justice, the history and workings of the environmental movement, greenwashing, public attitudes towards the environment, and the idea of sustainability.

ESP 5620 Environmental Law & Policy - 3 graduate credits
This course reflects the legal and political aspects of major environmental issues as embodied in environmental laws. The course will teach learners about the law and the policies that are the basis for environmental laws. Concurrent examination is proposed in order to provide linkage between policy and law as we will discuss real world events and issues. The course will be presented in a form to convey a robust understanding of the bigger procedural and theoretical picture in the formation, implementation, and facets for each topic. Topics include the legal process, the policy process, ownership and property rights, and how these relate to major environmental issues; water, air, waste, wildlife, and forestry. Emerging new issues will also be discussed.

ESP 5640 Methods of Social Research - 3 graduate credits
We encounter information about cultures and society in many ways throughout our lives. This course will enable students to become more astute and critical consumers of social research studies through exploring the thinking behind social research and the methods used to collect, analyze, and report the findings of the social sciences. Students will gain knowledge in research design and implement an actual study of social phenomena. Skills to be presented include theory application and construction, operationalizing variables, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of research methodologies, determining causality, sampling, hypothesis formulation and testing, data collection, analysis and depiction, and proposal writing.

ESP 5660 Principles of Environmental Education and Interpretation - 3 graduate credits
This course introduces students to the basic principles and practices of the art and profession of interpretation. After completing this course students will be able to: understand and relate a working definition of interpretation; discuss the history, principles, and philosophy of interpretation as it is practiced in natural resource settings; describe the basics of visitor evaluation; illustrate basic skills in interpretive research, oral presentation development and exhibit development; demonstrate development of interpretive themes, goals, and objectives; and demonstrate competency in making thematic oral presentations and producing interpretive exhibits. For an additional fee to the National Association for Interpretation, students will have an opportunity to become a Certified Interpretive Guide (CIG). This option will be explained in class at the beginning of the semester.

ESP 5680 Social Marketing in Environmental Education - 3 graduate credits
Social Marketing in Environmental Education will examine effective stewardship or environmental education outreach programs which apply strategic communications, marketing, branding, and evaluation processes which foster sustainable behavioral change toward stewarding natural resources. The course will focus on research studies on effective programs and how the best practices can inform design of new initiatives. Participants will: examine prevailing public environmental attitudes & knowledge; explore the issue of motivating people beyond knowledge to action; and review the role of Social Marketing in behavior change and environmental education.

ESP 5700 Graduate Seminar in Ecology and the Environment - 3 graduate credits
This graduate seminar focuses on how ecological concepts and studies inform scientists, managers, and decision makers about the nature of and solutions to environmental problems. Specific topics, each will clearly demonstrate the central role of ecology in understanding ecosystem function and how ecosystems respond to disturbances at multiple scales. Through readings and discussion, students become knowledgeable and critical of ecological theory and practice. The concepts are fleshed out through case studies taken directly from peer-reviewed literature. Prerequisite: Demonstrated competency in the principles of ecology, including ecosystem ecology, landscape ecology and/or community ecology; or permission of the instructor.

ESP 5710 Science Colloquium Series - 1 graduate credits
This graduate seminar is designed to be a core course in the Environmental Science and Policy program. It will focus on the analysis of contemporary issues in environmental science. Specific topics will vary from year to year and will be tailored to the interests of the students enrolled and faculty interests. The course will create a foundation of knowledge of contemporary issues. It is also expected that it will help students refine their research interests as well as be exposed to new ideas through interaction with others in the course.

ESP 5720 Land Use Planning Seminar - 1-3 graduate credits
Land use planning is a dynamic field that involves the integration of a variety of components to improve communities and places. This graduate seminar will focus on furthering knowledge on specific topics related to planning and explore interrelationships between topics. Topics might include smart growth, low impact design, transportation, energy, sustainable design, drinking water protection, housing, economic development, and community involvement.

ESP 5730 Contaminant Hydrology - 3 graduate credits
This course expands on Watershed Hydrology (ESP 5320) by taking a closer look at the contaminants carried by water as it moves through the hydrologic cycle. Studied contaminants will include water temperature (an EPA recognized contaminant), pH, nutrients, metals, and organic toxics such as pesticides. We will study the distribution of these contaminants and the theories necessary to understand their fate and transport in watersheds.

ESP 5740 Ecosystem Management: Principles & Applications - 3 graduate credits
The course will be structured around two major themes in ecosystem management: principles and applications. The theoretical background and current status of science-based knowledge and applications will be studied based on readings from the primary literature and understanding of selected case studies. The objectives of this course are to introduce the basic conceptual and theoretical framework of ecosystem management; the important biological, ecological, and socio-economic components of ecosystem management; and the challenges of implementing ecosystem management in real landscapes. The course intends to provide an interdisciplinary environment, an opportunity to develop open-mindedness and appreciation for diverse viewpoints regarding integrated resource management, and a chance to refine communication skills. Prerequisite: Demonstrated competency in social sciences, ecology and Geographic Information Systems; or permission of the instructor.

ESP 5750 Environmental Ethics - 3 graduate credits
Ethics help us understand what constitutes a good life and how to live one, as well as address questions of right and wrong. Science can provide us with data, information, and knowledge, but it does not tell us how to live a good life. Environmental ethics apply ethical thinking to our understanding of the natural world and the relationship between humans and the earth. It can help us bridge science and our personal and organizational responsibilities in life. This course will help students develop the skills necessary to recognize the ethics behind environmental problems and issues and the role of these ethics in leadership positions in environmental fields.

ESP 5760 Nature of Environmental Systems - 3 graduate credits
The modern world is characterized by an accelerating fragmentation and specialization of research-based information that hinders linking scientific knowledge and action to offer solutions to environmental problems. Scientists must bring together an understanding of the many components of the environment (ecological, economic, social, geophysical, etc.). This class outlines a framework that explicitly integrates social, ecological, and geological disciplines to address specific, fundamental questions related to biophysical systems, ecosystem services, and human responses and outcomes. This framework is iterative with linkages and feedbacks between biophysical and social sciences. The class will explore under which conditions an environmental system may shift from simple to complex (e.g., exhibiting surprising responses) by relying on theoretical, empirical, and methodological contributions from ecological, biophysical and social science disciplines. Prerequisite: Demonstrated competency in social and biophysical sciences, and quantitative analysis; or permission of the instructor.

ESP 5780 Applied Environmental GIS - 3 graduate credits
This is an introductory course designed for students with little or no experience using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The course is hands-on and will progressively build on a series of GIS skills in preparation for completing a natural resources project utilizing GIS. The course includes 5 "learning" sessions during the term which will include extensive instruction and repetitive performance of key GIS tasks. The course will meet once a week for the remainder of the term where students will focus on and receive assistance with individual projects.

ESP 5900 Master's Thesis Research - 1-6 graduate credits
Students select a topic in consultation with their advisor and committee. A timeline, proposal, and defense are outlined. A final thesis is prepared in accordance with program thesis guidelines.

ESP 5910 Independent Study in Environmental Science and Policy - 1-3 graduate credits
Independent study provides enrichment of the background of students through the pursuit of a special topic pertinent to their interests and abilities. It is an opportunity for an in-depth study of a problem in environmental science or policy. Consent of a faculty supervisor and the student's advisor is required.

ESP 5920 Individual Environmental Research - 1-3 graduate credits
Students select a topic and project in consultation with their advisor and committee. Collaboration with external organizations and partners is encouraged. A timeline, goals, deliverables, credits and expected outcomes are outlined for each project.

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