Table of Contents
Plymouth State University
has developed the following program to protect the employee from hazards posed
by entry into confined spaces. A confined space is any space that:
1) Is large
enough and so configured that an employee can easily enter and perform assigned
2) Has limited
or restricted means for entry or exit.
3) Is not
designed for continuous employee occupancy.
Plymouth State University
has further classified spaces as "Permit Required Confined Spaces”. These
spaces have one or more of the following characteristics:
or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere.
2) Contains a
material that has a potential for engulfing a person.
inwardly converging walls or a floor, which slopes downward and tapers to a
smaller cross‑section such that a person could be trapped or asphyxiated.
any other recognized serious safety or health hazard. Any space so designated
may not be entered without following a formal permit procedure, which is
detailed in this program.
Plymouth State University
has evaluated the work place and identified all such permit required confined
spaces and they have been clearly marked.
Blanking: means the
absolute closure of the pipe, line or duct by fastening a solid plate across its
bore to completely cover the bore and which extends to the outer edge of the
flange at which it is attached. The solid plate must be capable of withstanding
the maximum upstream pressure.
Confined Space: means
any space or work area not designed or intended for normal human occupancy,
having limited means of egress and poor natural ventilation; and/or any
structure including buildings or rooms, which have limited means of egress.
Confined Space Entry
Permit (CSEP): is a document to be initiated by the supervisor of employees who
are to enter into or work in a confined space. The Designated Person will
complete the CSEP before employees will be permitted to enter the confined
space. The CSEP shall be valid only for the performance of the work identified
and the location and time specified. The beginning of a new shift with change
of personnel will require the issuance of a new permit
Attendant: means an individual assigned to monitor the activities of the
employees working within a confined space. The confined space attendant
monitors and provides external assistance to those inside the confined space.
The confined space attendant summons rescue personnel in the event of an
emergency and may assist the rescue team.
Emergency: means any
occurrence, including the failure of a hazard control or monitoring equipment or
event internal or external to the confined space, which could endanger employees
in the confined space.
Employee: means any
worker who may be required to enter a confined space or be a confined space
attendant in the course of his/her normal duties.
Entry supervisor means
the person (such as the employer, foreman, or crew chief) responsible for
determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where
entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for
terminating entry as required by this section.
Note: An entry
supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as long
as that person is trained and equipped as required by this section for each role
he or she fills. Also, the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one
individual to another during the course of an entry operation.
Entry Team: means a
group of employees who will be entering a confined space in order to perform
means that an employee is subjected to a hazardous chemical in the course of
employment through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact,
etc.) and includes potential (e.g. accidental or possible) exposure.
means an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death,
incapacitation, impairment of ability to self‑rescue (that is, escape unaided
from a permit space), injury, or acute illness.
is any liquid or gas, which is a physical or health hazard, or a solid, which
forms a hazardous gas, or dust during use.
Hot work permit means
the employer’s written authorization to perform operations (for example,
riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source
to Life and Health: means the maximum level an individual can be exposed to for
30 minutes and escape without suffering irreversible health effects or impairing
space means a confined space that does not contain or, with respect to
atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing
death or serious physical harm.
Retrieval system means
the equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full‑body harness,
wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non‑entry
rescue of persons from permit spaces.
Employees shall be
responsible for being aware of the provisions of this practice and knowing the
procedures for safe entry and working in confined spaces. Employees are also
responsible for knowing when and how to obtain emergency assistance.
Employer shall be
responsible for performing audits of this practice, providing confined space
entry procedure training materials to those responsible for training,
identifying and posting confine spaces and ensuring compliance with requirements
of this practice.
Officer/Designated Person shall be responsible for ensuring that employees who
must enter confined spaces are properly trained and equipped to evaluate the
internal atmosphere defining any special conditions to assure safe entry, and is
responsible for issuing the CSEP and notifying local fire departments of the
1. Confined spaces
shall be identified with a posted sign or label, which reads: “Caution Confined
Space, Permit Required for Entry”.
2. Only employees
trained and knowledgeable of the requirements of these Confined Space Entry
Procedures will be authorized to enter a confined space or be a confined space
3. A confined Space
Entry Permit must be issued prior to their performance of any work within a
confined space. The permit must be kept at the work site for the duration of
4. The contents of
any confined space must be removed when necessary, prior to entry. This includes
all sources of ignition.
5. A hot work
permit shall be obtained as applicable.
6. A confined Space
program shall be obtained from Sub or General Contractors for evaluation by the
Safety Officer/Designated Person for provisions as necessary.
emergency phone numbers are to be posted in a conspicuous location. The Safety
Officer/Designated Person shall ensure all employees have knowledge of its
1. If liquids may
be contained within the confined space, explosion proof equipment must be used.
All equipment must be positively grounded.
2. Hand tools used
in confined spaces shall be in good condition, explosion proof, spark proof and
employed according to intended use. Whenever possible, pneumatic power tools
will be used.
3. Hand held lights
and other illumination in confined spaces shall be equipped with guards to
prevent contact with the bulb and must be explosion proof.
4. Compressed gas
cylinders, except cylinders used for self-contained breathing apparatus shall
not be taken into confined spaces.
5. If a confined
space requires entry where rescue may be difficult, a retrieval system will be
used. The outside observer shall be provided with the same equipment as those
working within the confined space.
6. A ladder is
required in all confined spaces deeper than the employee’s shoulders. The
ladder shall be secured and not removed until all employees have exited the
7. Only self
contained breathing apparatus of the NIOSH approved airline respirators equipped
with a 5 minute emergency air supply (egress bottle) shall be used in untested
confined spaces or in any confined space with conditions are determined to be
immediately dangerous to life and health.
8. Where air-moving
equipment is used to provide ventilation chemicals shall be removed from the
vicinity to prevent introduction into the confined space.
9. Vehicles shall
not be left running near confined space work or near air moving equipment being
used for confined spaces.
10. Smoking in
confined spaces will be prohibited at all times.
VI. ENTRY PROCEDURE
The Entry Team shall:
1. Evaluate the
job to be done and identify the potential hazards before the job begins.
2. Ensure that all
process piping, mechanical, electrical equipment etc. have been locked and
tagged as necessary.
3. If possible,
ensure removal of any standing fluids that may produce toxic or air displacing
gases vapor or dust.
Officer/Designated Person shall:
1. Ensure that the
space is ventilated before starting work in the confined space and for the
duration of the time that work is being performed in the space.
2. Ensure that the
personnel who enter the confined space and the confined space observer are
familiar with the contents and requirements of this procedure.
3. Designate at
least one employee in the area of the confined space to be the helper to the
confined space attendant in the event of an emergency, and instruct the helper
4. Ensure remote
atmospheric testing of the confined space prior to employee entry and before
validation of a CSEP to ensure the following conditions are met:
** Oxygen content is
between 19.5% and 23%
** Flammability less
** No other
atmospheric contaminates are present if the space contained toxic, corrosive, or
whether hot or cold work will be allowed.
6. Ensure that a
copy of the CSEP is posted at the work site, and file accordingly after the work