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Plymouth State University

has developed the following program to protect the employee from hazards posed

by entry into confined spaces.  A confined space is any space that:

 1)        Is large

enough and so configured that an employee can easily enter and perform assigned


 2)        Has limited

or restricted means for entry or exit.

 3)        Is not

designed for continuous employee occupancy.


Plymouth State University

has further classified spaces as "Permit Required Confined Spaces”.  These

spaces have one or more of the following characteristics:

1)         Contains,

or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere.

2)         Contains a

material that has a potential for engulfing a person.

3)         Has

inwardly converging walls or a floor, which slopes downward and tapers to a

smaller cross‑section such that a person could be trapped or asphyxiated.

4)         Contains

any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.  Any space so designated

may not be entered without following a formal permit procedure, which is

detailed in this program.


Plymouth State University

has evaluated the work place and identified all such permit required confined

spaces and they have been clearly marked.




Blanking:  means the

absolute closure of the pipe, line or duct by fastening a solid plate across its

bore to completely cover the bore and which extends to the outer edge of the

flange at which it is attached.  The solid plate must be capable of withstanding

the maximum upstream pressure.


Confined Space:  means

any space or work area not designed or intended for normal human occupancy,

having limited means of egress and poor natural ventilation; and/or any

structure including buildings or rooms, which have limited means of egress.


Confined Space Entry

Permit (CSEP):  is a document to be initiated by the supervisor of employees who

are to enter into or work in a confined space.  The Designated Person will

complete the CSEP before employees will be permitted to enter the confined

space.  The CSEP shall be valid only for the performance of the work identified

and the location and time specified.  The beginning of a new shift with change

of personnel will require the issuance of a new permit


Confined Space

Attendant:  means an individual assigned to monitor the activities of the

employees working within a confined space.  The confined space attendant

monitors and provides external assistance to those inside the confined space. 

The confined space attendant summons rescue personnel in the event of an

emergency and may assist the rescue team.


Emergency:  means any

occurrence, including the failure of a hazard control or monitoring equipment or

event internal or external to the confined space, which could endanger employees

in the confined space.


Employee:  means any

worker who may be required to enter a confined space or be a confined space

attendant in the course of his/her normal duties.


Entry supervisor means

the person (such as the employer, foreman, or crew chief) responsible for

determining if acceptable entry conditions are present at a permit space where

entry is planned, for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations, and for

terminating entry as required by this section.

Note:  An entry

supervisor also may serve as an attendant or as an authorized entrant, as long

as that person is trained and equipped as required by this section for each role

he or she fills. Also, the duties of entry supervisor may be passed from one

individual to another during the course of an entry operation.


Entry Team:  means a

group of employees who will be entering a confined space in order to perform




means that an employee is subjected to a hazardous chemical in the course of

employment through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact,

etc.) and includes potential (e.g. accidental or possible) exposure.


Hazardous atmosphere

means an atmosphere that may expose employees to the risk of death,

incapacitation, impairment of ability to self‑rescue (that is, escape unaided

from a permit space), injury, or acute illness.


Hazardous Chemical: 

is any liquid or gas, which is a physical or health hazard, or a solid, which

forms a hazardous gas, or dust during use.


Hot work permit means

the employer’s written authorization to perform operations (for example,

riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source

of ignition.


Immediately Dangerous

to Life and Health:  means the maximum level an individual can be exposed to for

30 minutes and escape without suffering irreversible health effects or impairing



Non‑permit confined

space means a confined space that does not contain or, with respect to

atmospheric hazards, have the potential to contain any hazard capable of causing

death or serious physical harm.


Retrieval system means

the equipment (including a retrieval line, chest or full‑body harness,

wristlets, if appropriate, and a lifting device or anchor) used for non‑entry

rescue of persons from permit spaces.




Employees shall be

responsible for being aware of the provisions of this practice and knowing the

procedures for safe entry and working in confined spaces.  Employees are also

responsible for knowing when and how to obtain emergency assistance.


Employer shall be

responsible for performing audits of this practice, providing confined space

entry procedure training materials to those responsible for training,

identifying and posting confine spaces and ensuring compliance with requirements

of this practice.



Officer/Designated Person shall be responsible for ensuring that employees who

must enter confined spaces are properly trained and equipped to evaluate the

internal atmosphere defining any special conditions to assure safe entry, and is

responsible for issuing the CSEP and notifying local fire departments of the




1.   Confined spaces

shall be identified with a posted sign or label, which reads: “Caution Confined

Space, Permit Required for Entry”.

2.  Only employees

trained and knowledgeable of the requirements of these Confined Space Entry

Procedures will be authorized to enter a confined space or be a confined space


3.   A confined Space

Entry Permit must be issued prior to their performance of any work within a

confined space.  The permit must be kept at the work site for the duration of

the work.

4.   The contents of

any confined space must be removed when necessary, prior to entry. This includes

all sources of ignition.

5.    A hot work

permit shall be obtained as applicable.

6.  A confined Space

program shall be obtained from Sub or General Contractors for evaluation by the

Safety Officer/Designated Person for provisions as necessary.

7.   Applicable

emergency phone numbers are to be posted in a conspicuous location.  The Safety

Officer/Designated Person shall ensure all employees have knowledge of its




1.    If liquids may

be contained within the confined space, explosion proof equipment must be used. 

All equipment must be positively grounded.

2.    Hand tools used

in confined spaces shall be in good condition, explosion proof, spark proof and

employed according to intended use.  Whenever possible, pneumatic power tools

will be used.

3.   Hand held lights

and other illumination in confined spaces shall be equipped with guards to

prevent contact with the bulb and must be explosion proof.

4.    Compressed gas

cylinders, except cylinders used for self-contained breathing apparatus shall

not be taken into confined spaces.

5.    If a confined

space requires entry where rescue may be difficult, a retrieval system will be

used.  The outside observer shall be provided with the same equipment as those

working within the confined space.

6.    A ladder is

required in all confined spaces deeper than the employee’s shoulders.  The

ladder shall be secured and not removed until all employees have exited the

confined space.

7.   Only self

contained breathing apparatus of the NIOSH approved airline respirators equipped

with a 5 minute emergency air supply (egress bottle) shall be used in untested

confined spaces or in any confined space with conditions are determined to be

immediately dangerous to life and health.

8.    Where air-moving

equipment is used to provide ventilation chemicals shall be removed from the

vicinity to prevent introduction into the confined space.

9.    Vehicles shall

not be left running near confined space work or near air moving equipment being

used for confined spaces.

10.      Smoking in

confined spaces will be prohibited at all times.



The Entry Team shall:

1.     Evaluate the

job to be done and identify the potential hazards before the job begins.

2.     Ensure that all

process piping, mechanical, electrical equipment etc. have been locked and

tagged as necessary.

3.     If possible,

ensure removal of any standing fluids that may produce toxic or air displacing

gases vapor or dust.


The Safety

Officer/Designated Person shall:

1.    Ensure that the

space is ventilated before starting work in the confined space and for the

duration of the time that work is being performed in the space. 

2.    Ensure that the

personnel who enter the confined space and the confined space observer are

familiar with the contents and requirements of this procedure.

3.    Designate at

least one employee in the area of the confined space to be the helper to the

confined space attendant in the event of an emergency, and instruct the helper


4.     Ensure remote

atmospheric testing of the confined space prior to employee entry and before

validation of a CSEP to ensure the following conditions are met:

** Oxygen content is

between 19.5% and 23%

** Flammability less

than 10%

** No other

atmospheric contaminates are present if the space contained toxic, corrosive, or

irritant material.

5.    Designate

whether hot or cold work will be allowed.

6.    Ensure that a

copy of the CSEP is posted at the work site, and file accordingly after the work

is completed.

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