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Watching the Seasons Change Scientific Resources

Appalachian Mountain Club

Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study

Mount Washington Observatory

Maple Resources:


Burakowski, E.A., A.R. Contosta, D. Grogan, S.J. Nelson, S. Garlick, N. Casson, 2022. The future of winter in northeastern North America: climate indicators portray continued or accelerated warming and loss of snow that will impact ecosystems and communities, Northeastern Naturalist 28(SI11), 180-207.

Casson, N.J., A.R. Contosta, E.A. Burakowski, J.L. Campbell, M.S. Crandall, I.F. Creed, M. C. Eimers, S. Garlick, D.A. Lutz, M.Q. Morison, A.T. Morzillo, and S.J. Nelson, 2019. Winter weather whiplash: impacts of meteorological events misaligned with natural and human systems in seasonally snow-covered regions. Earth’s Future, 7(12): 1434-1450. DOI: 10.1029/2019EF001224

Contosta, A.R., N.J. Casson, S. Garlick, S.J. Nelson, M.P. Ayres, E.A. Burakowski, J. Campbell, I. Creed, C. Eimers, C. Evans, I. Fernandez, C. Fuss, T. Huntington, K. Patel, R. Sanders-DeMott, K. Son, P. Templer, C. Thornbrugh, 2019. Northern forest winters have lost cold, snowy conditions that are important for ecosystems and human communities. Ecological Applications, 29(7), p.e01974.

Summarized in: Confronting our Changing Winters – see digital report here:

Contosta, A.R., N.J. Casson, S.J. Nelson, S. Garlick, 2020. Defining frigid winter illuminates its loss across seasonally snow-covered areas of eastern North America. Environmental Research Letters, 15(3), p.034020. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/ab54f3

Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study, 2021. Online Book: A Synthesis of Scientific Research at Hubbard Brook. Climate Change, J. Campbell, ed.

HBRF, 2017. Facts About Climate Change, Science Links FS-01, published 1/11/2017.

Maine Climate Council, 2020. Maine won’t wait: A four-year plan for climate action. Augusta,

ME. 124 pp. Available onlne at

Murray, G.L.D., A.M. Colgan, S.J. Nelson, E. Kelsey, K.D. Kimball, 2021. Climate trends on the highest peak of the Northeast: Mount Washington, NH, Northeastern Naturalist 28(SI11): 64-82.

Rapp, J.D., D.A. Lutz, R.D. Huish, B. Dufour, S. Ahmed, T.L. Morelli, K.A. Stinson, 2019. Finding the sweet spot: Shifting optimal climate for maple syrup production in North America, Forest Ecology and Management, 448: 187-197,

Reinmann, A.B., J.R. Susser, E.M.C. Demaria, P.H. Templer, 2017. Declines in northern forest tree growth following snowpack decline and soil freezing. Global Change Biology, 25:420-430.

Tourville, J., M. Dovciak, D. Publicover, S. Nelson, 2021. Forests on the Move: Tracking Climate Related Changes of Treelines in Montane Systems of the Northeast. Presentation, Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Cooperative (FEMC) Conference, Dec. 16, 2021.